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Cellular Networking Perspectives Ltd.

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December, 2004 Articles

1. Packet Data Needs a MAP.
Wireless packet data systems and the Mobile Application Part should not be seen as isolated worlds. Packet data systems need a reliable 'always on' network to perform signaling. When packet data is an ancillary service it cannot perform its own signaling reliably, definitely not for mobile-terminated data services, such as location services. Artificial barriers between these networks need to be broken down.
2. 3GPP TSG T (Terminal) Update .
This is the last update for 3GPP TSG T. This is not only because this is the last issue of Cellular Networking Perspectives, but also because TSG T is being disbanded, with its working groups being scattered among the remaining TSGs of 3GPP.
3. 3GPP2 TSG-S: Service and System Aspects.
A summary of the reports and specifications, mostly Stage 1 descriptions, produced by 3GPP2 TSG-S.
4. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio Access Network Interface Standards.
A summary of standards for the 'A' interface between the network equipment and Base Station.

November, 2004 Articles

1. Our Swan Song.
After more than 12 years, Cellular Networking Perspectives will suspend publication at the end of 2004.
2. Cell Broadcast and Emergency Alert Service: A Marriage Made in Heaven?.
Cell broadcast sends one radio message that is received by every idle mobile in the cell's coverage area. Wouldn't this be just ducky for sending out alerts for tornadoes, terrorist attacks and recently abducted children?.
3. 3GPP TSG Radio Access Network (RAN) Update.
An update on the activities of the 3GPP Technical Specification Group for the UMTS radio interface, including all their recently updated specifications.
4. 3GPP2 TSG-C/TIA TR-45.5 cdma2000 Standards.
A list of all cdma2000 standards published by TIA TR-45.5 and 3GPP2 TSG-C, including the IS-95 and IS-2000 radio interface specifications.

October, 2004 Articles

1. Water Water Everywhere but not an IMSI in Sight!.
IMSI seems like an almost infinite resource with a quadrillion distinct codes available, but sometimes there still are not enough, largely due to bad planning more than a decade ago. And the GSM Association wants to make sure it stays this way.
2. 3GPP TSG CN Update – Core Network.
An update on activities and specifications within the 3GPP TSG responsible for Core Network standardization. This includes both the MAP (Mobile Application Part) used by GSM for roaming for years and the 'All IP' core network designed for UMTS systems.
3. 3GPP Organization (TSGs and Working Groups).
The organizational structure of 3GPP TSGs, including all working groups.
4. 3GPP2 TSG-X (and related SDOs) Wireless Core Network Specifications.
The latest status of specifications produced by 3GPP2 TSG-X and its two associated North American SDO formulating groups: TR-45.2 and TR-45.6.

September, 2004 Articles

1. Reorganization of Surveillance Standards.
TIA TR-45 has reorganized its standardization efforts for lawfully authorized electronic surveillance (LAES).
2. ia450 – New Technology, Old Association, New Name.
The NMT association has a new focus – cdma2000 in the 450 MHz band.
3. New Leadership for TIA TR-45.2 .
The TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee for core network standards has a new chair and vice-chair. At least one of the names will be familiar.
4. ATIS T1's Vanishing Act.
The ATIS T1 group of standards committees all have new names, completing the integration of the committees back into ATIS.
5. 3GPP TSG SA: Service & System Aspects.
An update on the standards being produced by the 3GPP Technical Specification Group that provides much of its high level coordination and technical direction.

July, 2004 Articles

1. Wireless at Supercomm 2004.
WiMAX and fixed-mobile convergence were hot at the TIA's annual Supercomm trade show.
2. The All-IP Wireless Network.
The dream of a voice, data and signaling network based entirely on IP is the 'unified field theory' of telecommunications. 3GPP has developed a standard that has been adopted by 3GPP2. Are migration and convergence around the corner?.
3. 3GPP TSG-T Update.
An update on the 3GPP Technical Specification Group for Terminals. This might be the last update, because the group may soon be dismantled.
4. 3GPP2 TSG-C/TIA TR-45.5 cdma2000 Standards.
The latest status of cdma2000 air interface and support standards and specifications, including HRPD (1xEV DO).

June, 2004 Articles

1. Text Me To Your Leader!.
Canadians, currently enduring a national election, had an opportunity to bombard potential future Prime Ministers with text messages.
2. Latest US IMSI Assignment Guidelines.
3. Radio Frequency ID (RFID).
What is the technology behind the hype that is RFID? Is this one technology or many disguised behind a single name? And, is Big Brother going to benefit more than consumers? .
4. 3GPP TSG Radio Access Network (RAN) Update.
An update on the activities and specifications of the 3GPP Technical Specification Group for Radio Access Networks, that defines the 3G UMTS (Wideband CDMA) system.
5. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio Access Network Interface Standards.
3GPP2 Technical Specification Group “A” defines the “A” interface between the Base Station and the MSC…and the PDSN…and a number of other network elements besides.

May, 2004 Articles

1. Cats And Dogs Sign a Peace Treaty.
CDG and 3G Americas have jointly produced MMS implementation guidelines.

May, 2004 Articles

1. Cats And Dogs Sign a Peace Treaty.
CDG and 3G Americas have jointly produced MMS implementation guidelines.
2. Too Many Technologies = Trouble .
Cingular is justifying its purchase of AT&T Wireless because it needs more spectrum to support analog, TDMA, GSM and (eventually) UMTS.
2. Too Many Technologies = Trouble .
Cingular is justifying its purchase of AT&T Wireless because it needs more spectrum to support analog, TDMA, GSM and (eventually) UMTS.
3. ANSI-41 Revision E Really Does Exist!.
The core of Rev. E of the CDMA/TDMA/AMPS backbone network protocol has been published after years of work.
3. ANSI-41 Revision E Really Does Exist!.
The core of Rev. E of the CDMA/TDMA/AMPS backbone network protocol has been published after years of work.
4. IMSI News.
After years of neglect in the US, IMSI is finally getting some attention.
4. IMSI News.
After years of neglect in the US, IMSI is finally getting some attention.
5. Enhanced 911: It's the Little Things That Count.
Enhanced 911 standards are mostly in place, but many implementation issues remain to be solved by ATIS ESIF.
5. Enhanced 911: It's the Little Things That Count.
Enhanced 911 standards are mostly in place, but many implementation issues remain to be solved by ATIS ESIF.
6. 3GPP TSG CN Update: Core Networks.
An update on 3GPP (GSM/UMTS) core network standardization.
6. 3GPP TSG CN Update: Core Networks.
An update on 3GPP (GSM/UMTS) core network standardization.

April, 2004 Articles

1. IFAST Implements IRM Expansion.
IFAST, which assigns MIN codes to international roaming carriers with AMPS, CDMA and TDMA, has expanded its pool of IRM codes from 2,000 to 3,600, significantly extending the life of the resource.
2. US Law Enforcement Asks FCC for More Surveillance Capabilities.
US law enforcement has demanded more surveillance capabilities, particularly related to broadband access and packet data, from the FCC.
3. 3GPP TSG SA Update.
An update on the status of the 3GPP Technical Specification Group responsible for Services, Security, Codecs and Architecture.
4. 3GPP2 TSG-S Update.
An update on the 3GPP2 group that performs many of the same functions as 3GPP TSG SA – managing services, security and architecture (but not codecs).

March, 2004 Articles

1. Non-Dialable Numbers for Emergency Services.
Non-dialable North American numbers of the format NPA-211-xxxx and NPA-511-xxxx will be used for routing of emergency calls. The use of these numbers will be controlled by ATIS ESIF.
2. MEID Collisions.
Pseudo-ESN is a good substitute for MEID under most circumstances, but not when a database is accessed by use of an equipment identifier. Then, a full transition to MEID is important.
3. MMS – Multimedia Message Service.
Wireless carriers hope that MMS will be as successful as SMS with customers, and that it will prove to be the first 'killer app' for wireless packet data.
4. Status of TIA-41 (ANSI-41) Implementations.
An update on the status of manufacturer implementations of the TIA-41 Mobile Application Part standard for analog, TDMA and CDMA mobility management and roaming.

February, 2004 Articles

1. Beware the MEID.
The MEID will soon be replacing the ESN, as the ESN is exhausted. While good backwards compatibility solutions exist, they are not perfect, so some planning now might avoid nasty surprises later.
2. Putting Push-to-Talk to the Test .
Well known wireless industry pundit Andy Seybold takes four different US cellular push-to-talk systems for a test drive.
3. Indian CDMA Goes Roaming .
CDMA now appears to be firmly entrenched in India as a full service alternative to GSM, including national and international roaming.
4. 3GPP TSG T (Terminals) Update.
An update on the activities and publications of the 3GPP TSG T that specifies terminal interfaces with the major exception of the UMTS radio interface, which is specified by TSG RAN. TSG T also writes performance requirements and test specifications for terminals.

January, 2004 Articles

1. Changes for 2004.
There will be no price increase for 2004, but the July and August issues will be merged.
2. J-STD-025-B (US Intercept Standard) Approved for Publication.
Joint ATIS/TIA standard J-STD-025 will support packet data intercept, as of the soon-to-be published Revision B.
3. SIP – Session Initiation Protocol.
IETF SIP is a popular protocol for VoIP and multimedia call processing.
4. 3GPP TSG RAN (Radio Access Networks) Update.
An update on the activities of the 3GPP Technical Specification Group for Radio Access Networks.
5. 3GPP2 TSG-X (and related SDOs) Wireless Core Network Specifications.
An update on the core network specifications from 3GPP2 TSG-X and the related SDOs TIA TR-45.2 and TR-45.6.

December, 2003 Articles

1. Changes for 2004.
There is no price increase for 2004, but the July and August issues will be merged.
2. ATIS Reorganizes.
ATIS is reorganizing, T1 is no more. Its committees will be distributed around the new groupings of ATIS.
3. New 3G Spectrum in US?.
The US FCC has given the go-ahead to auction spectrum for 3G in the 1710-1755 and 2110-2155 MHz bands. Current occupants have to be evicted first, requiring time, legislation and money.
4. Press-to-talk Over Cellular.
Compared to 'Push To Talk', Press-to-talk Over Cellular has slower setup but better 'Presence' capabilities.
5. 3GPP TSG CN (Core Network) Update.
An update on activities on the 3GPP TSG CN, defining core network procotols for UMTS (Wideband CDMA).
6. New Structure of ATIS Forums and Committees.
A diagrammatic view of the new organization of ATIS, including the placement of all the formerly T1 committees.
7. 3GPP2 TSG-C/TIA TR-45.5 cdma2000 Standards.
The latest status of cdma2000 specifications that have been published or that are under development.

November, 2003 Articles

1. FCC Cries 'Uncle' on 123-345-7890.
The FCC has given up on their proposal to use the number 123-456-7890 to identify uninitialized emergency-calling mobiles, and has accepted the industry proposal to use the digits '911' followed by a 7 digit extract of the ESN or IMEI.
2. CDMA and GSM Battle in India.
Indian carriers have chosen cdma2000 technology for Wireless Local Loop. GSM carriers claim that this is just a back door method of obtaining cellular licenses without paying as much in licensing fees.
3. Lawfully Authorized Surveillance for Wireless Packet Data – J-STD-025-B.
A summary of work on the latest version of the industry's LAES standard which now will cover packet data.
4. 3GPP TSG SA Update.
The status of specification work being undertaken by 3GPP Technical Specification Group SA (Services & Architecture).

October, 2003 Articles

1. ESN Recycling.
The TIA is trying to encourage the recycling of old ESN manufacturer codes into new UIMID codes to stave off the depletion of this numbering resource.
2. The International Roaming MIN (IRM).
The International Roaming MIN is used to uniquely identify CDMA, TDMA and analog mobiles outside North America.
3. 3GPP TSG T Update.
This group defines standards for GSM and UMTS Mobile Equipment, except the radio interface and security.
4. TR-45 and 3GPP2 Organization.
The structure of the 3GPP2 international wireless standards partnership and related TIA groups.

September, 2003 Articles

1. SID – The System ID.
The System Identifier (SID), and the related BID, are some of the most important numeric identifiers for CDMA, TDMA and analog systems. The FCC is currently rushing to privatize administration…but will the 6 authorities find any customers?.
2. 3GPP TSG RAN Update .
A summary of the recent activities of the 3GPP TSG RAN (Radio Access Network) for UMTS radio systems, including the status of specifications and reports that are currently under development.
3. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio Access Network Interface Standards.
An update on the status of specifications for the “A” interface between wireless network 'backbone' equipment, such as MSCs and PDSNs and base station equipment.

August, 2003 Articles

1. TIA/EIA-41 Update.
An update on the contents and structure of the soon-to-emerge Revision E of 'ANSI-41', the Mobile Application Part for CDMA, TDMA and Analog networks.
2. 3GPP Release 6 Feature Status.
The latest status of 3GPP Rel. 6 features for UMTS systems.
3. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The status of every TIA TR-45.3 standard related to the TDMA radio interface, whether published or under development. This includes a new version of ANSI-136 that supports MEID (an ESN replacement).

June, 2003 Articles

1. The Bads on Mobile IP.
An attempt to determine the reason why Mobile IP has not yet been widely adopted. Is it the lack of support for authentication and billing? Is it performance? Is it a lack of demand for mobility?.
2. 3GPP TSG SA Update: Service & System Aspects.
The latest information on the 3GPP TSG on Service and System Aspects. This TSG has the most control over the future direction of 3GPP UMTS standards, being responsible for most of the requirements definition and early design.
3. 3GPP2 TSG-X (and related SDOs) Wireless Core Network Standards.
3GPP2 specifications are now produced by TSG-X, but most published specifications are still identified by their old TSG-N or TSG-P name. These standards are still being balloted by the corresponding TIA subcommittees: TR-45.2 and TR-45.6 (which will not be merging).

May, 2003 Articles

1. The Goods on Mobile IP.
Mobile IP is a solution to Internet device mobility that has been available, as a specification, since 1996. It solves the routing and addressing portion of the mobility puzzle – with a number of caveats. The protocol is, in its basic form, extremely simple, but it has a number of optional extensions that may be mandatory under some circumstances.
2. 3GPP TSG T (Terminal) Update .
3GPP TSG T is responsible for some aspects of 3G terminals, although the major issues of the radio interface and voice coders are left to other groups. The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is having a significant impact on its work.
3. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
Due to the rapidly declining interest in AMPS, this will be our last update on the status of analog standards, even though the technology is still in use in many rural locations, for compatibility between GSM, TDMA and CDMA and for special applications, such as low-bandwidth data terminals.

April, 2003 Articles

1. The HLR: The Wireless Carrier's Secret Weapon.
The benefits of the HLRs that exist in all cellular systems are being overlooked in attempts to jump directly to all-IP networks. Is this a mistake?.
2. 3GPP Feature Status.
The latest status of major features for 3GPP's UMTS Release 6 and beyond.
3. 3GPP TSG RAN Update.
The status of activities within the 3GPP Radio Access Network (RAN) Technical Specification Group, including all specifications with status that has been updated since our last report.
4. Structure of 3GPP Standards Groups for GSM, GPRS, UMTS/W-CDMA.
The structure of the 3GPP organization that produces specifications for the GSM 2G and UMTS 3G wireless systems. This includes all the TSGs and Working Groups.
5. Structure of 3GPP2 Standards Groups for cdma2000.
The structure of the 3GPP2 organization that produces specifications for the cdma2000 family of 2G/3G wireless systems. This includes all the TSGs and Working Groups.

March, 2003 Articles

1. New Reports: IOS and TSG-X .
We will now be providing regular updates on the 3GPP2 IOS standard for BS-MSC interoperability, as well as the specifications of the new TSG-X.
2. Location Services, Part II: Major Requirements.
The major requirements of a commercial location services standard to complement TIA/EIA-41 MAP, including routing, privacy, QoS and interactions with emergency call positioning).
3. 3GPP TSG CN (Core Network) Update.
An update on the activities and specifications of 3GPP TSG CN that is responsible for defining protocols for the UMTS core network.
4. Status of TIA-2001-B IOS (BS–MSC “A” Interface) Implementations.
The first report containing vendor implementation status for the IOS (TIA-2001) interface between Base Station and Mobile Switching Center equipment.
5. 3GPP2 TSG-X Core Network Specifications.
The first report listing projects for the new 3GPP2 TSG-X, the combination of TSG-N and TSG-P.

February, 2003 Articles

1. 3GPP2 TSG-N and TSG-P are Merging…and the new name is…TSG-X.
Core networks, whether circuit-based or packet-based will now be standardized in 3GPP2 by TSG-X.
2. Canada – US Text Messaging .
SMS interoperability is spreading in North America. Less than a year after Canada and the US each gained national cross-technology text messaging, subscribers can now text across the border.
3. Commercial Location Services, Part I: Introduction.
Commercial location services for CDMA, TDMA and possibly even AMPS, will soon be facilitated by a new standard to support network interconnection for roaming mobiles.
4. 3GPP TSG SA#18 Update.
3GPP TSG SA specifies the overall architecture and service capabilities of systems based on 3GPP specifications (e.g. W-CDMA/UMTS) and is also responsible for cross TSG co-ordination. They are still relatively early in the development phase of Release 6 of their specifications, an enhanced All-IP network.

January, 2003 Articles

1. 3GPP2 TSG-N and TSG-P are Merging.
3GPP2 TSG-N studies Core Networks, and TSG-P studies Packet Data. A combined group is required for the challenge of a Packet Data Core Network.
2. FCC Considers Privatization of US SID Assignment.
The US FCC is planning to privatize the assignment of US SID codes. This number identifies a wireless system, or portion of a wireless system, to mobiles.
3. To 3GPP Release 6… and Beyond!.
3GPP is well into the development of its next major release - Release 6. This article provides a list of the major new or enhanced features.
4. 3GPP TSG T (Terminal) Update .
TSG T standardizes many aspects of 3GPP terminals (with the major exception of the radio interfaces, which are standardized by TSG RAN and TSG GERAN).
5. TIA TR-45.6 and TSG-P 2G and 3G Wireless Packet Data Standards.
TIA TR-45.6 maintains 2G packet data standards (CDPD) and, in conjunction with 3GGP2 TSG-P, develops packet data standards for cdma2000 systems.

December, 2002 Articles

1. WiFi Aims for Even Higher Speeds.
IEEE 802.11 is looking to develop a new generation of wireless LANs that can perform as well as 100 Mbps Ethernet.
2. Number Pooling and TLDNs .
There may be a problem with call delivery to number pooling systems from systems that have implemented TIA/EIA/IS-756 number portability protocols.
3. Local Carriers Criticize VoIP Numbering Usage.
Local Exchange Carriers claim that VoIP carriers are wasting numbers. But, is it reallyl the other way round?.
4. 3GPP TSG RAN#17 Update.
The latest information on the 3GPP Technical Specification Group for the UMTS radio interface, including the status of specifications and reports being developed by this group.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
The latest status of vendor implementations of ANSI-41, including new data on enhancements to the standards family, and new vendors – Telcordia and ZTE.
6. TIA TR-45.5/3GPP2 TSG-C CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of standards in the world of the CDMA2000 air interface.

November, 2002 Articles

1. FCC Suspends the “123” Solution for Emergency Callback .
The FCC has suspended their previous order that “123-456-7890” should be used as a callback number for uninitialized phones. Most likely, the J-STD-036 solution, based on ESN or IMEI, will be used instead.
2. Major Report on US Emergency Services Implementations.
A former top FCC engineer has released a report on the (less than stellar) status of wireless 911 implementation in the US.
3. Adventures in Roaming: A Case for Improved International Service.
A veteran of the wireless industry has trouble roaming internationally, and reflects on what this might mean for customer perception and carrier revenue.
4. 3GPP Release 5.
3GPP has basically completed its Release 5. This is the first release that is based on an All-IP core network, and is a massive undertaking, for which the completion of specifications is merely the beginning.

October, 2002 Articles

1. Feedback on Header Compression.
The chair of the IETF ROHC Working Group claims that ROHC is even better than our September article claimed.
2. TIA Organizational Changes .
TIA Committee TR-32 (Personal Radio Equipment) will be absorbed into TR-41 (User Premises Telecommunications Requirements), and committees FO-2 and FO-6 (Fiber Optics) will be merged.
3. New Chair for TIA ESN/UIM ad hoc Group.
Chris Carroll of Verizon Wireless is the new chair of the TIA ESN/UIM ad hoc.
4. 3GPP2 Considers TSG-N/TSG-P Merger.
An All-IP network would merge the Core Network with the Packet Data network. Does this mean that the 3GPP2 TSG's studying these areas should merge?.
5. SMS Value-Added Service Access Methods.
Can the use of Service Access Codes (e.g. 800) boost the acceptance of SMS-based services?.
6. 3GPP TSG CN Update.
The latest status of specifications developed by the 3GPP Core Network TSG for GSM and W-CDMA systems.
7. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio Access Network Interface Standards.
The latest status of TIA TR-45.4 projects and standards, and the status of active 3GPP2 TSG-A projects.

September, 2002 Articles

1. Response to 3G Americas Report on GSM Capacity.
The most comprehensive response to the 3G Americas report on GSM Capacity, as compared to CDMA, was drafted by analysts at the Deutsche Bank.
2. IP Header Compression Specifications for Wireless.
Wireless systems are inexorably migrating from traditional telephony protocols to internet protocols. Headers can be quite large, and header compression is a method of eliminating some of the repetitive data, to achieve greater efficiency over radio interfaces.
3. TIA TR-45.2/3GPP2 TSG-N Wireless Network Standards.
The latest status of standards developed for the wireless 'core network', most notably TIA/EIA-41, the Mobile Application Part for CDMA, TDMA and Analog systems.

August, 2002 Articles

1. Local Number Portability Deadline Extended by FCC – but not Pooling.
US wireless carriers now have until November 2003 to implement number portability, but only until November 2002 for pooling.
2. E911 Mandate Delayed for Smaller US Carriers.
Smaller US carriers also have a delay in the E911 mandate.
3. Revised TIA Engineering Manual.
The TIA engineering manual is used to develop many wireless standards, including ANSI-41 and IS-2000.
4. ATIS T1 takes 'Tele' out of Telecommunications.
ATIS wants to expand from North American telecom to global communications standards.
5. GSM Voice Capacity.
GSM proponents claim that their technology can provide better voice capacity than CDMA2000.
6. 3GPP TSG SA: Service and System Aspects.
An update on 3GPP TSG SA activities.
7. Status of ANSI-41 Implementations.
An update on ANSI-41 implementations from infrastructure equipment vendors.

July, 2002 Articles

1. Callback Numbers for Uninitialized Phones: FCC Considers Reconsideration.
The FCC has agreed to reconsider their recent decision to use 123-456-7890 as the number to indicate that an uninitialized mobile has dialed 911 and callback is not possible.
2. Punch List: Law Enforcement Wins Technical Knock Out .
The FCC's response to a court ruling that suspended some electronic surveillance 'punch list' items has been to provide more justification. And, this time the industry does not appear to be objecting.
3. Mobile Equipment Identifier for 3GPP2.
3GPP2 has agreed to adapt the GSM IMEI mobile equipment identifier to their requirements, and 3GPP has agreed to let them.
4. 3GPP TSG T (Terminal) Update.
The latest information on 3GPP's TSG for terminal (mobile) specifications.
5. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of analog cellular standards.

June, 2002 Articles

1. The Future of TIA TR-45 Standards Development.
A veteran of the TIA cellular/PCS standards effort reflects on the challenges of harmonization between the TIA-influenced 3GPP2 standards and the GSM-influenced 3GPP standards, along with the increasing emphasis on IETF based internet standards for telecommunications.
2. 3GPP/3GPP2 Harmonization .
There is pressure on wireless equipment manufacturers to 'harmonize' future systems. This report of a recent harmonization meeting shows that the focus is on the Core Network (internal signaling) for future All-IP (IMS) systems. The major first step was to align some terminology between 3GPP and 3GPP2, and to agree on a basic network reference model.
3. TIA TR-45.6 and TSG-P 2G and 3G Wireless Packet Data Standards.
TIA TR-45.6 maintains the 2G packet data standard known as CDPD, and is also defining the basic protocol structure for next generation, All-IP systems for 3GPP2 to support increasingly packet-oriented CDMA2000 systems.

May, 2002 Articles

1. FCC Ruling on 9-1-1 Calls from 'Non-Initialized' Phones .
The US FCC has ruled that phones intended only for. emergency calling should be programmed with the number 123-456-7890. This is a simple solution for some, but not all, callback problems.
2. First Emergency Services Interconnect Forum (ESIF) Meeting.
ATIS ESIF is a new forum for the resolution of wireless emergency calling interconnection issues.
3. ATIS TTY Testing.
Text telephony devices are now being supported by digital wireless systems. A new test number from ATIS helps ensure compatibility with PSAP equipment.
4. 3GPP RAN Overview.
A description of the 3GPP Radio Access Network standardization organization, and the status of many of the documents produced by its four working groups.
5. TIA TR-45.5/3GPP2 TSG-C CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of standards that support cdmaOne and cdma2000 air interfaces.

April, 2002 Articles

1. UWCC Morphs into “3G Americas”.
A new association to promote the use of GSM and Wideband CDMA/UMTS standards in North America.
2. T1M1.5: Standards for National Security/Emergency Preparedness OA&M.
A new branch of ATIS T1M1 has formed to provide Operations, Administration and Maintenance standards for national security and emergency personnel.
3. Overview of 3GPP TSG CN: Core Network.
TSG CN provides core network standards for 3GPP GSM and W-CDMA.
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. C and TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
The latest status of implementations of ANSI-41 by major equipment vendors. This is the mobility and roaming standard for analog, TDMA and CDMA systems.
5. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio to Switching Technology (“A” Interface) Standards .
The latest status of standards connecting base station equipment to MSCs and other network elements.

March, 2002 Articles

1. Wireless Priority Service: An Inside View.
The US government agency with responsibility for developing this service provides a summary of the stages of development that are planned.
2. Cibernet MXP.
Cibernet, famous for its CIBER billing record format, has developed a new XML-based format known as MXP (or informally, CIBER 3).
3. Circumnavigating SS7: MTP – Message Transfer Part Level 2 .
MTP is the foundation protocol for SS7. Level 2 provides reliable communications between two connected Signaling Points.
4. Overview of 3GPP TSG SA: Service & System Aspects.
TSG SA is central to the 3GPP (W-CDMA) standards organization. It is responsible for defining capabilities and coordinating much of the work.
5. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of standards in the development of TIA/EIA-136 TDMA. Developments are expected to slow down now that this technology has been excluded from carrier's plans for 3G systems.

February, 2002 Articles

1. Overview of 3GPP TSG T: Terminals.
3GPP TSG T is responsible for the development of terminal-specific standards, including test specifications, for 2G GERAN (GSM) and 3G UMTS (W-CDMA) systems. This article describes the structure of the Technical Specification Group, what it is working on and how the work is progressing.
2. TIA TR-45.2/3GPP2 TSG-N Wireless Network Standards .
An updated report on standards that support 2G and 3G wireless networks for mobility management, including the TIA/EIA-41 standard for automatic roaming and emerging work on All-IP networks for 3G systems based on cdma2000.

January, 2002 Articles

1. Pending FCC Ruling on Hearing AIDS Compatibility.
The US FCC is considering whether digital wireless phones should be forced to be compatible with some or all hearing AIDS.
2. ESIF: Emergency Services Interconnection Forum.
ATIS and NENA are promoting a new forum to facilitate interconnection of systems to meet the US FCC emergency services.
3. 9-1-1: No Shortcuts.
NENA has realized that shortcuts to 9-1-1 (e.g. pressing and holding a key) are simply a headache.
4. Goodbyte UWCC.
The Universal Wireless Communications Consortium, longtime promoters of ANSI-136, is no more.
5. Circumnavigating SS7, Part IV: SCCP.
SCCP is an important protocol layer, providing important extensions to the basic point-code routing mechanism and allowing large messages to be transported. But the protocol has significant limitations, such that its full capabilities are rarely utilized.

December, 2001 Articles

1. TIA President Flames ATIS.
TIA and ATIS are involved in a better dispute over whether (and how) their standards efforts should be merged.
2. Circumnavigating SS7, Part III: TCAP in Context.
TCAP is widely incorporated in telecommunications applications protocols. What problems does it solve, and what unnecessary baggage does it bring?.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
The latest status of implementations of the ANSI-41 Mobile Application Part from major vendors.
4. TIA TR-45.6 and TSG-P 2G and 3G Wireless Packet Data Standards.
The latest information on published and emerging standards for CDPD and cdma2000 packet data.

November, 2001 Articles

1. Circumnavigating SS7, Part II: TCAP Overview.
TCAP is an SS7 layer used to provide transaction management and message structuring to applications using MTP or SCCP for transport. All TCAP messages are defined recursively using a 'T,L,V' (Tag, Length, Value) format.
2. TIA TR-45.5/3GPP2 TSG-C CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of standards for CDMA air interfaces being defined by TIA subcommittee TR-45.5 and 3GPP2 TSG-C. This does not include Wideband CDMA standards being defined by 3GPP.

October, 2001 Articles

1. Circumnavigating SS7, Part I: Overview.
SS7 is the nervous system of telecommunications networks, providing packet switching services for signaling data. The basic protocols, known as MTP and SCCP, provide transport services for a large number of application protocols related to call processing, mobility management and database services. This article is the first in a series that will also provide a detailed look at the MTP physical/transport layer, SCCP routing services layer and TCAP application message packaging layer.
2. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio to Switching Technology ("A" Interface) Standards.
The latest status of standards for the "A" interface between the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) and the BS (Base Station).

September, 2001 Articles

1. CALEA Rolls Over.
US implementation of CALEA legislation is not dead - just half asleep.
2. TIA Spins Standards Off.
TIA is planning to spin its standards organization off to allow non-US companies full membership. Will this eventually mean a merger with the other big US telecom standards organization - ATIS?.
3. IMEI - The GSM Mobile Equipment Identifier.
Every GSM phone is identified by an IMEI. This is less important to GSM than the ESN is to AMPS, D-AMPS and CDMA systems. But, this is a good thing, and the IMEI may eventually become the universal mobile equipment identifier.
4. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Cellular and PCS Standards.
The latest status of standards related to TDMA radio interfaces used in both cellular and PCS frequency bands.

August, 2001 Articles

1. Mobile Identifiers - ESN and IMEI.
The ESN and IMEI are the primary identifiers for mobile equipment (wireless phone hardware) as opposed to subscription identifiers (MIN and IMSI).
2. Electronic Serial Numbers (ESN).
The ESN is the equipment identifier used in wireless systems conforming to TIA cellular and PCS standards.
3. Structure of 3GPP Standards Groups for GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UTRA.
If you are confused by the technical specification and Working Groups in 3G wireless standards development – pin this report on your wall!.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Wireless Network Standards .
The latest status of standards related to wireless networks supporting analog, TDMA and CDMA cellular and PCS radio interfaces.

July, 2001 Articles

1. FCC NPRM on Cellular Fundamentals (Part 22).
The FCC is reviewing regulations that affect ESN, SID and analog cellular service in the United States.
2. Book Review: Wireless Telecommunications with ANSI-41.
The second edition of the only book covering ANSI-41 is out. Is it worth purchasing?.
3. Roamer Agreement Tables Part II: Better Alternatives?.
If IS-847 is a less than satisfactory solution to roamer agreement tables, are there better approaches.
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
The latest status of IS-41-C and ANSI-41 MAP implementations from major vendors of wireless infrastructure.
6. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
Use of analog is declining, but it is far from gone yet. It still provides an important basis for roaming, as well as being essential for a number of special voice and data wireless service businesses.

June, 2001 Articles

1. New Chair for TR-45.2.
Terry Watts of Cingular is replacing Cheryl Blum of Lucent as chair of TIA subcommittee TR-45.2.
2. US FCC and Emergency Services Callback for Unsubscribed Phones.
The US FCC is thinking about developing rules to extend the 911 callback capability to 'uninitialized' wireless phones.
3. Roamer Agreement Tables, Part I: Validation.
ANSI-41 roaming relies on information and routing and business relationships stored in VLR, MSC and MC roamer agreement tables. This is often incomplete or incorrect, and identifying problems is time consuming. Can this process be automated?.
4. Identifying 3GPP and GSM Specifications.
The identification scheme for ETSI GSM has been extended to indicate related 3GPP GERAN and UMTS specifications.
5. TIA TR-45.6 and 3GPP2 TSG-P 2G and 3G Packet Data Standards.
TIA TR-45.6 and 3GPP2 TSG-P are responsible for the development of 2G packet data standards (CDPD) as well as emerging 3G wireless packet data protocols.

May, 2001 Articles

1. Update your link!.
Every subscriber to Cellular Networking Perspectives (and Wireless Security Per- spectives) has the right to place a company link to their company’s URL at: www.cnp-wireless.com/links.html Have you taken advantage of this?.
2. Is IMSI Dead?.
The AMPS, TDMA and CDMA industries have been aiming to replace MIN by IMSI since 1994, yet this effort appears to have been stalled following the publication of most, but not all, standards. Is this situation going to change in the near future?.
3. TIA TR-45.5/3GPP2 TSG-C CDMA Radio Interface Standards.
The latest status of standards that have been developed, or are being developed, by TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.5 and, for the first time, a cross reference to 3GPP2 TSG-C specifications.

April, 2001 Articles

1. Feedback on Number Pooling.
There has been considerable feedback on our number pooling article (March, 2001). We respond to two sets of comments here.
2. MIN Block Assignment.
The CTIA has issued a Request for Proposal to identify the administrator for the MIN numbering resource, once it is separated from the North American directory number pool.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
Major manufacturers report on the status of their implementations of the ANSI-41 Mobile Application Part for analog, TDMA and CDMA system interoperability. For the first time, this report includes NEC, and Alcatel — back after a short absence.
4. TIA TR-45.4/3GPP2 TSG-A Radio to Switching Technology (“A” Interface) Standards.
The “A” interface connects radio equipment at the Base Station to the Mobile Switching Center. TIA TR-45.4 and 3GPP2 TSG-A jointly define the standard interfaces used in most CDMA systems. This report contains the most recent status of these standards, whether published or still under development.

March, 2001 Articles

1. FCC Tackles Number Conservation...Again.
The FCC recently released its views on number conservation. Number pooling is still at the top of the charts, but rate center consolidation is gaining favor. The FCC will allow new area codes to be assigned by splits or by (technology-neutral) over-lays. The FCC has not (yet) mandated nationwide 10 digit dialing.
2. TR-45 and 3GPP2 Organization.
3GPP2 and TR-45 are jointly responsible for the development of standards for 3G systems based on cdma2000 radio tech-nologies, and 2G standards compatible with the ANSI-41 network protocol, including analog, TDMA and CDMA.
3. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
TIA subcommittee TR-45.3 develops standards for TDMA (D-AMPS, UWC-136) radio systems.

February, 2001 Articles

1. Passing Through the GSM-TDMA Gate with GAIT.
TDMA systems Europe (GSM) and in North America (ANSI-136) were largely incompatible until GAIT pulled them closer together.
2. FCC Action of Wireless Emergency Services Access for the Deaf.
The FCC has given the cellular, PCS and ESMR industries until June 30, 2002 to ensure that their digital systems work with TTY devices used by the deaf, hard of hearing and speech impaired.
3. Review of Wireless Intelligent Networking.
Wireless Intelligent Networking, a new book on WIN, is reviewed by telecom expert P.J. Louis.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Wireless Network Standards.
The status of cellular and PCS network standards produced by TIA subcommittee TR-45.2.

January, 2001 Articles

1. The Development of cdma2000 Standards.
Understanding CDMA technology is complicated by varying terminologies associated with different standards from different organizations, different technologies and different trade names. This article clearly describes the evolution of CDMA technology, associating the right words with the right concepts.
2. Optimal Routing, Part III: The Ultimate Solution.
None of the optimal routing solutions described in parts I and II of this article were totally satisfactory. This article describes what is needed to make optimal routing work well under all circumstances. The only problem is that no existing SS7 ISUP standards yet support the required messaging and switching capabilities.
3. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
Analog cellular is still widely used, and incremental improvements to standards are still being pursued by TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.1.

December, 2000 Articles

1. 3G Standards.
2. Optimal Routing, Part II: Optional Routes.
Optimal routing allows calls to be delivered more efficiently. There are many approaches, but they all have some limitations.
3. The Evolution of Wireless Standards to 3G.
A graphical illustration of how wireless standards are evolving to the third generation.
4. TIA TR-45.6 and TSG-P Adjunct Wireless Packet Data Standards.
TIA subcommittee TR-45.6 is responsible for the CDPD packet data standard. Together with 3GPP2 TSG-P, it is also working on a variety of packet data standards for 2G and 3G systems.

November, 2000 Articles

1. New Chairman for TR-45.6.
Ed Campbell of 3Com is the new chairman for TIA subcommittee TR-45.6 responsible for packet data standards.
2. Optimal Routing, Part I.
Routing calls to roaming wireless phones is often very inefficient and consequently more expensive than it should be. Optimal Routing could change that…if a few technical hurdles are overcome!.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D (ANSI-41) Implementations.
Information from network infrastructure vendors details the ANSI-41 capabilities that they support, from A (Authentication) to Z (well, W = WIN, anyway). Welcome LG (Korea) and Telos (Canada) to this exclusive club!.
4. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A complete list of all standards that have been published by TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.5, or that are under development.

October, 2000 Articles

1. Priority Access Service: A Dissenting Opinion.
A well-placed source, who wishes to remain anonymous, has some valuable feedback on our September, 2000 article on the Priority Access Service.
2. Wiretap Troubles: Not Just the American Way.
Russian wiretap legislation is also getting into trouble in the courts.
3. SAMPS - Assisted GPS for TDMA.
SAMPS (System Assisted Mobile Positioning through Satellite) is a standard for positioning using assisted GPS designed for use on TDMA, and eventually, analog systems.
4. TIA TR-45.4 Radio to Switching Technology “A” Interface Standards.

September, 2000 Articles

1. TR-45 Chairman John Marinho Resigns.
2. CALEA Confusion Continues.
A US Court of Appeal decision tearing down much of the FCC rule-making on the TIA standard for implementation of the US CALEA legislation has sown further confusion over what intercept capabilities are required by US carriers.
3. FCC Rulemaking on Priority Access Service.
Priority Access Service (PAS) will allow emergency workers preferred access to wireless communications services in times of emergencies.
4. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
TIA subcommittee TR-45.3 has been producing numerous modifications to its TIA/EIA-136 standard for TDMA mobiles and base stations.

August, 2000 Articles

1. J-STD-036 Published!.
Enhanced 911 for wireless has taken a major step forward with the publica tion of this standard, although the October 2001 deadline is still uncom fortably close.
2. IS-801: Mobile Assisted Positioning.
TIA IS-801 is a new standard for CDMA positioning using GPS tech nology embedded in the mobile.
3. Other GPS-based MS Positioning Companies.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Wireless Network Standards.
The latest status of standards that support analog (AMPS and NAMPS), TDMA (TIA/EIA-136) and CDMA (TIA/EIA-95 and IS-2000) cellular and PCS systems, including projects under development and standards just recently published.

July, 2000 Articles

1. WIN ad hoc Morphs into TR-45.2 Working Group V.
The WIN ad hoc group has matured into TIA TR-45.2 Working Group V, and it also has a new chairman.
2. E911 Phase II: Advanced Applications.
Advanced capabilities included in E911 Phase II standard J-STD-036 are mobile assisted positioning, more accurate routing, updated position, 'pushing' position, and obtaining position after an inter-MSC handoff.
3. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
The latest status of analog cellular standards, including those that have been published, and those that are still under development.

June, 2000 Articles

1. Phones and PDA's: Can the Marriage Ever Work?.
Phones and PDA's have had an on-again, off-again relationship for several years. We identify one flaw that is common to all attempts to merge these devices – and an easy way to make the relationship work.
2. The Changing Role of Network Interconnection.
P.J. Louis, an author and expert on telecommunications interconnection, describes how competition is generating new protocols faster than standardization can make them work together.
3. E911 Phase II, Part II: Network Interconnection.
Emergency Services is an example of the problems caused by network interconnection. When there is a choice between enhancing existing protocols and inventing new protocols, the decision is often not very easy.

May, 2000 Articles

1. Canada's Numbering Plan Plans.
Canada has plans to expand its numbering plan (part of the North American Numbering Plan), but is the price that wireless carriers and consumers will pay too high?.
2. E911 Phase II, Part I: Locating Wireless Emergency Callers.
Phase II of the US FCC Emergency Services mandate will require more accurate location information to be delivered to the emergency services network. J-STD-036 is the standard emerging to meet this mandate.
3. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Standards.
The latest list of standards and projects from TR-45.5, and its companion 3GPP2 TSG-C, which are responsible for defining CDMA digital cellular and PCS standards.

April, 2000 Articles

1. IFAST: Rising Again?.
IFAST has played a significant role in facilitating international roaming between systems using the TIA/EIA-41 intersystem operations standard, but has been recently plagued by funding problems. Will it rise from the ashes?.
2. Cellular and PCS Features: TIA/EIA-664 Revision A nears Publication.
TIA/EIA-664 (formerly IS-53) is a massive repository of descriptions of wireless features. While the descriptions are not always adhered to by carriers, they are a starting point, and nowhere else does such a comprehensive document exist.
3. TIA TR-45.4 Radio to Switching Technology Standards.
TR-45.4 (and its companion group 3GPP TSG-A) define the A interface between base stations and switches (MSC's). Its standards are of particular interest to CDMA carriers.

March, 2000 Articles

1. Question about SOC Codes.
A reader asks us what a SOC Code is? What standards are they used by? And, how can one be obtained?.
2. Question about SID Codes.
SID codes are equivalent to a radio station'scall sign, and are fundamental to radio interfaces connected via TIA/EIA-41. Unfortunately, it is not so easy to obtain a listing of them.
3. International Update: SS7 Global Title Routing.
IS-807 (plus an addendum) provides guidelines on how global title can be used (warts and all) to facilitate routing of TIA/EIA-41 messages across international boundaries.
4. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
TR-45.3 is the TIA subcommittee responsible for TMDA digital cellular and PCS standards (known variously as IS-136, ANSI-136, UWC/136 or D-AMPS). The complete list of standards and projects that have been published by this subcommittee, or that are currently being developed is presented, organized by the major phases of development.

February, 2000 Articles

1. Calling Party Pays, Part III: More Implementation Alternatives.
Calling Party Pays could be implemented through access to the LIDB database that is currently used by landline carriers to validate operator assisted calls. But, even this approach has its problems. What would happen if one was to ignore all the barriers placed by the installed network and just design Calling Party Pays from scratch? Even if that was the perfect system, is anybody still interested?.
2. TIA TR-45.2 Wireless Network Standards.
The latest information on standards that have been published by TIA's TR-45.2 standards subcommittee related to wireless networks, including a number of 3G-related standards that are currently being balloted, and many more that are under development.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
Major vendors of infrastructure equipment report the status of their implementations of features provided by the TIA/EIA-41-D inter-systems operation standard, and a number of 'add-on' standards published later.

January, 2000 Articles

1. Australia's Y2K Problem.
Why did Australia's analog cellular system stop working on December 31, 1999?.
2. ...and Korea's too.
3. Wireless TTY Forum Technical Status Report .
The Wireless TTY Forum appears to have made great strides in providing options that all stakeholders can be happy with. Next step – Implementation!.
4. Calling Party Pays (CPP) Part II: Implementation Alternatives.
We describe in detail the first two of four implementation alternatives for this controversial feature.
5. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Cellular Air Interface Standards.
Notwithstanding reports from Australia and Korea, analog cellular is still alive and kicking. This report provides an update on the status of projects, whether published, being balloted, or still under development.

December, 1999 Articles

1. CPP Part I: A Service Whose Time Has Come…or Gone?.
Calling Party Pays seems like the dream feature to enable carriers to increase calling to wireless phones. So, why is it virtually unavailable in North America?.
2. ATIS T1P1 & TIA TR-46 PCS-1900 ('GSM') Standards.
GSM standards are largely developed by ETSI, but ATIS T1P1 is responsible for adaptation to North American requirements, and later harmonization with the global GSM standard.
3. TIA TR-45.6 Packet Data Standards (including CDPD).
TR-45.6 is moving away from its original focus on the CDPD wireless packet data standard, and concentrating more on 3G packet data standards.
4. Evolution from IS-41 Rev. 0 to TIA/EIA-41-D (“IS-41 on a Page”).
A complete listing of IS-41 and TIA/EIA-41 message on a page, annotated by the revision of the standard they first appeared in. Mission Impossible? No!.

November, 1999 Articles

1. CTIA SRD on Location-Based Services.
What do wireless carriers want in commercial location services?.
2. CDMA Mobile Assisted Location: IS-801.
CDMA carriers now have a standard to allow location to be determined from in-mobile GPS receivers, with network assistance.
3. FCC and Location Testing.
The FCC is planning to develop a consistent method of determining the accuracy of location systems, both network and mobile based.
4. Motorola IS-41-C & TIA/EIA-41-D Updates.
5. Packet Data Surveillance Update.
TIA TR-45.2 is planning to incorporate packet data surveillance capabilities that satisfy privacy concerns.
6. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The status of all CDMA-related TIA standards projects and published standards.
6. FCC CALEA Ruling, Part II.
How support for timing considerations and multi-party calls affect the requirements for J-STD-025 Rev. A.

October, 1999 Articles

1. FCC Gives Go-Ahead to Handset Based Location Solutions for Enhanced Wireless 911.
Carriers now have a choice between network-based and handset-assisted location for Enhanced 9-1-1.
2. New Wireless Data Standards Project: WIPP.
The TIA has initiated a Wireless Internet Partnership Project.
3. CTIA on Number Conservation.
In comments to the FCC, the CTIA has reported that Rate Center Consolidation is the way to conserve numbers, not Number Pooling and not Service-Specific area codes.
4. Implications of the FCC CALEA Ruling.
The FCC has largely sided with law enforcement in its CALEA decision, raising significant challenges for telecommunications carriers.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
Which companies are implementing IS-41 Rev. C and TIA/EIA-41-D features? And which features are favorite?.
6. TIA TR-45.4 Radio to Switching Technology Standards.
The status of "A" interface standards between base station and MSC.

September, 1999 Articles

1. FCC Rules on CALEA.
The FCC has ruled on the controversial CALEA legislation, but this presents standards committees with a scheduling nightmare.
2. CIBER: The Inter-Carrier Billing & Settlement Standard, Part II: Rejects and Returns.
An important consideration when handling billing records that cannot be accepted is ensuring accountability. CIBER has a sophisticated process for handling this.
3. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The status of standards for TDMA digital cellular, from the nearly obsolete IS-54, through the heavily promoted IS-136 and the emerging TIA/EIA-136 standards.

August, 1999 Articles

1. FCC Action on CALEA: Still Waiting.
The telecommunications industry is ready to finalize standards to support US CALEA electronic surveillance legislation…but the anticipated FCC rulemaking has yet to appear.
2. FCC Notice of Proposed Rule-making on CPP.
This paper on Calling Party Pays lays the groundwork for future services that will reverse the current method of charging for mobile terminated calls.
3. CIBER: The Inter-Carrier Billing & Settlement Stnadard, Part I.
Jack Hwang of Cap Gemini provides an introduction to the CIBER record format, which is an integral part of the wireless billing and settlement infrastructure.
4. Location Services.
A meeting will be held August 11th-12th to coordinate wireless phone location standards activities.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Wireless Network Standards.
The status of developing and published wireless network standards.

July, 1999 Articles

1. ESN Expansion Tossed to new TR-45 Ad Hoc Group.
ESN expansion could prove to be an enormous expenditure for no return. Faced with such a hot potato...toss it to a newly created committee!.
2. FCC Moves Ahead on Calling Party Pays - CTIA Moves Back.
The FCC has issued a press release indicating there will be a new rule-making on CPP. The CTIA has cancelled a technical forum on CPP. Is CPP moving forwards or back?.
3. Rate Centers: The Key to Number Conservation.
The FCC recently initiated a rule-making on number conservation. Should they pick Rate Center Consolidation or Number Pooling? We have already decided.
4. Number Portability Phase III: Enhancements.
Phase III of Number Portability cleans up some loose ends, ensuring that services like Short Message Service and Calling Name Presentation still work.
5. TIA TR-45.1 - Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
An update on the TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.1 that is responsible for analog air interface standards.

June, 1999 Articles

1. FCC Notice of Proposed Rule-Making on Number Conservation.
The FCC is rightly concerned about the rapid disappearance of phone numbers in North America. But, will their planned reliance on number pooling really provide a solution?.
2. Local Number Portability Phase II: Porting Mobile Numbers.
Phase II of local number portability, known as Wireless Number Portability (WNP) will allow porting to and from wireless carriers. It introduces a number of challenges for carriers.
3. TIA TR-45.6 Packet Data Standards.
A summary of new standards being produced by TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.6, related to wireless packet data.
4. TIA TR-45.7 - Operations, Administration & Service Provisioning Standards.
Our first report on projects within the TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.7.
5. ATIS T1P1 & TIA TR-46 PCS-1900 ("GSM") Standards.
The current status of North American adaptations to GSM standards.

May, 1999 Articles

1. Telecom Trivia Trading Card Series 2: Hints.
For a free sampling of our trading cards contact cnpaccts@cnp-wireless.com.
2. Erratum: Nortel Implementation of IS-41 Rev. C, TIA/EIA-41 Rev. D.
A correction to the information published in March 1999 regarding the Nortel implementations of IS-41-C and TIA/EIA-41 Rev. D.
3. ESN Exhaustion.
The ESN is an important mobile identifier yet, within a decade, there may be none left for new manufacturers to allocate.
4. Local Number Portability Phase I: Terminations to Ported Landline Numbers.
Local Number Portability (LNP) Phase I provides the ability for wireless switches to terminate calls to ported landline numbers using a query mechanism.
5. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The TIA standards subcommittee responsible for CDMA digital air interface standards is moving fast to claim that they have a standard conformant with most 3G/IMT-2000 requirements.

April, 1999 Articles

1. Update to "Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations".
A late update from Alcatel on the status of inter-system operations standards implementations.
2. Upcoming Conferences.
Caribbean Wireless & Satellite '99: April 12-14 1999, Montego Bay, Jamaica and Wireless Partnering: April 27-30 1999, Miami.
3. Air Interface Technology Capacity Comparisons.
A realistic comparison of the capacity of major wireless voice technologies by an industry expert.
4. The Evolution of Wireless Standards: Evolving to 3G, IMT-2000.
A graphical view of the relationship of 3G and IMT-2000 proposals to existing analog and digital wireless standards (and vice-versa).
5. TIA TR-45 Cellular/PCS "AMPS" Standards Development.
A unique graphical view of the complex structure of the TIA TR-45 standards committee, responsible for AMPS, N-AMPS, D-AMPS and CDMA radio and supporting network standards.
6. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee "Radio to Switching Technology" Standards Status Report.
An update on the status of projects in the TIA standards committee responsible for the BS-MSC "A" Interface.

March, 1999 Articles

1. Dr. Jon's Wireless Security Bulletin.
A new, optional, addition to Cellular Networking Perspectives - free to our subscribers for March and April, 1999.
2. Wireless Local Number Portability: Down for the Count, But Not Out!.
The FCC has given the wireless industry partial forbearance on number portability.
3. Update: Amputating AMPS in Australia.
Australia is still heading for AMPS elimination by the end of the year. Can GSM and CDMA fill the void?.
4. TTY: A New Approach.
A breakthrough in wireless TTY communications.
5. Understanding the ANSI TIA/EIA-136 Structure.
TIA/EIA-136 is divided into a large number of parts. What are they and how do they relate to the overall structure of this TDMA radio interface standard?.
6. Emergency Alert Service: New TR-45.2 Project.
The TIA has initiated a project to use broadcast short message service to distribute emergency alerts (to compatible mobiles only).
7. Status of IS-41 Rev. C & TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
8. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.

February, 1999 Articles

1. Wireless Glossary.
Another new feature on the Cellular Networking Perspectives website: an online wireless glossary.
2. Telecom Trivia Trading Cards: Series 2.
Whether you have to beg, borrow or buy these, you just have to get a set of these attractive, informative cards.
3. US Number Conservation Comparative Matrix.
A summary of number conservation measures being considered in the US. .
4. Riding the (TIA/EIA-634 A-Interface) Range.
Eileen McGrath Hadwen reports on how the threat of a little Cowboy justice is focusing the minds of MSC and BSC vendors on a truly interoperable A-Interface standard.
5. Wireless Local Number Portability Standards, Part I: Marching Orders.
Why was Local Number Portability mandated for wireless carriers? How is it going to be implemented? Who is giving the order? What standards are being developed?.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular/PCS Network Standards Report.
An updated list of standards developed by TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.2, and projects under development.

January, 1999 Articles

1. How Iridium Got Its Name.
The story of Iridium that even Iridium doesn't know.
2. Full Text Index of Back Issues...Now Available.
Proud owners of electronic Cellular Networking Perspectives back issues can now do instantaneous, full-text, searches from their desktop!.
3. Good-bye Astronet.
1998 was the end of the line for three once-famous names in wireless infrastructure: Astronet, Celcore and Plexsys.
4. A-Interface Alphabet Soup...It's for dinner.
Eileen McGrath Hadwen illustrates the status of the TIA MSC/BSC "A" interface, including incompatibilities between different network architectures that inhabit the same standard.
5. US Number Conservation.
Michele Young gives us the scoop on US number conservation efforts, and helps us understand how they affect wireless, and why the best technical solution is being under-utilized.
6. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
The latest information on active TR-45.1 analog cellular projects, and a list of published standards.

December, 1998 Articles

1. Alert! Error in IS-41-C.
IS-41 Revision C and TIA/EIA-41-D are very similar, but a single bit error in Revision C is causing confusion.
2. Plagiarism: The Sincerest Form of Flattery.
3. FCC Releases Proposed Rulemaking: Status of J-STD-025 Still Uncertain.
The FCC has taken one small step towards resolving the impasse over CALEA. How will this affect the TIA/ATIS standard J-STD-025?.
4. Digital Circuit Switched Data, Part III: Intersystem Messaging and Standards Deconfusion.
We conclude our series on digital circuit-switched data, by summarizing the operations and parameters provided for inter-system data operations, and the TIA standards available for data.
5. Inter-System Link Protocol (ISLP): IS-728.
This small standard provides a protocol that is essential to allow circuit switched data calls to continue after an inter-system handoff.
6. IFAST Update: "Save the IRM's".
Will the IRM go the way of the Edsel and the Passenger Pigeon?.

November, 1998 Articles

1. CNP Index Beta Text.
We are looking for subscribers to assist in the Beta test of a full-text index of all our back issues.
2. If we didn't answer the phone.
If our telco's problems with our voice mail were a problem for you...please accept our apologies!.
3. Letter to the Editor.
Dr. Arunas Slekys of Hughes Network Systems defends the data capabilities of TDMA.
4. Digital Circuit Switched Data, Part II: IS-737 Call Processing.
A description of the call processing required when roamers make or receive data calls with a digital wireless phone, or when those calls need to be handed-off to another MSC or changed from one service to another.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. C and TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
What features from the latest standards for inter-system operations are the major infrastructure vendors implementing?.
6. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
An introduction to the basic concepts, and fundamental problems, related to transmitting data from TDMA and CDMA digital phones.

October, 1998 Articles

1. CALEA Deadline Extended to June, 2000.
US carriers will have to implement J-STD-025 (with the exception of location and packet data monitoring) or equivalent electronic surveillance capabilities, by June 2000.
2. What Does 125 Meters RMS Mean Anyway?.
An industry group has agreed that E911 location should be determined within 125 meters 67% of the time...and forget about RMS (Root Mean Square).
3. Let us Link to You...And We'll Give You The Shirt Off Our Back.
The first 20 subscribers who provide website link information, and a quote, will receive one of our golf shirts!.
4. Update on AMPS Closure in Australia.
The Australian government is giving mixed signals over the legislated demise of the AMPS network.
5. Digital Circuit Switched Data, Part I: Overview.
An introduction to the basic concepts, and fundamental problems, related to transmitting data from TDMA and CDMA digital phones.
6. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee "Radio to Switching Technology" Standards Status Report.
The latest status of TIA subcommittee TR-45.4 published documents, and ongoing projects. .

September, 1998 Articles

1. Wireless LNP Deadline Extended: Standards Not Affected.
The FCC deadline for wireless carriers to allow porting of their subscribers has been extended until March 31, 2000 to allow time for the completion of standards, development, testing and installation of equipment.
2. A Quartet of New Projects.
TIA standards subcommittee TR-45.2 has initiated new projects for Phase III of Wireless Number Portability, Automatic Code Gapping, Group III Fax on a CDMA Wireless Local Loop system and Second Generation Security Algorithms.
3. E911 and Location Technology Survey.
The results of a survey of major E911 and location technology vendors is displayed in tables of technology characteristics, applications for location technology beyond E911 and field trials. Contact information is also supplied.
4. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A summary of all TIA TDMA cellular/PCS standards, including a summary of the major parts of TIA/EIA-136 Revision 0, and a list of parts that will be modified during the development of TIA/EIA-136 Revision A.

August, 1998 Articles

1. Erratum: CALEA Deadline Not Extended (yet).
2. The Editor in Cellular & Mobile International.
3. IFAST: Progress on International Roaming Problems.
The International Forum on AMPS Standards Technology allocated more IRM (International Roaming MIN) codes at their June, 1998 meeting, along with SID codes for the first time.
4. Segmentation: Breaking Up Is Hard To Do (if you want to get it together again).
TIA/EIA-41 messages are growing larger with every revision. Some can actually be larger than SS7 allows in a single message. Segmentation is the solution, but it is not without problems.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular/PCS Network Standards Report.
The latest status of standards published by TIA subcommittee TR-45.2, or under development.

July, 1998 Articles

1. CALEA Deadline Extended Until October 1, 2000.
The CALEA deadline has been extended, but there is still no resolution on Capability, Capacity and Cost issues.
2. Y2K and Wireless.
The CTIA has initiated a plan for testing wireless network elements for Year 2000 compliance.
3. Near Chairman for Analog Standards Subcommittee TR-45.1.
John Kay of Motorola discusses priorities for analog standardization.
4. New Subcommittee for Wireless Network Management Standards: TIA TR-45.7.
The Network Management ad hoc group is now a full subcommittee.
5. Enhanced Wireless 9-1-1 (E911), Part III.
How is the location of a mobile going to be delivered to the emergency services network? What other 9-1-1 enhancements are being developed?.
6. Status of IS-41 Rev. C and TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
A summary of the advanced inter-system operation features being developed by major MSC vendors.
7. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
A summary of analog cellular standards that have been published by, or that are being developed by TR-45.1.

June, 1998 Articles

1. Your Company's Website in Lights.
Subscribers have an opportunity to have their company's website linked from http://www.cnp-wireless.com.
2. Enhanced Wireless 9-1-1 (E911), Part II.
Concluding out discussion of E911 Phase I by discussing the optional capabilities of Reconnect and Three-way Calling.
3. CDMA Standards Progress: TIA/EIA-95-B.
CDMA standards consultant Phil Brown provides a summary of the new capabilities and enhancements in TIA/EIA-95 Revision B.
4. TIA TR-45.6, Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Standards.
An update on the status of CDPD standards.
5. ATIS T1P1 and TIA TR-46 Committees, PCS-1900 ('GSM') Standards Project Status Report.
An update on the status of North American GSM standards.

May, 1998 Articles

1. Has GSM Been Cloned?.
An analysis of the recent announcements that a GSM smart card ("SIM") has been cloned.
2. We Now Accept MasterCard.
3. The Editor in Cellular & Mobile International.
4. Get 'em While They're Cool.
New, environmentally friendly, golf shirts are available to be won, earned or purchased.
5. Crypto Quiz(es).
Our second encrypted quiz is available at http://www.cnp-wireless.com/quiz.html.
6. New Projects: ESN Expansion and Calling Party Pays.
7. Enhanced Wireless 9-1-1, Part I.
The first part of a series on enhanced 9-1-1, covering the FCC order, basic services and Phase I services.
8. TIA TR-45 Cellular/PCS "AMPS" Standards Development.
The structure of the TIA TR-45 standards committee.
9. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
The status of published and developing CDMA digital standards.

April, 1998 Articles

1. Analog Standards: "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen".
Why has it been so long since the last publication of an analog cellular standard?.
2. TIA/EIA-41 Rev. E Network Reference Model.
A description of the network elements and interfaces that are supported by this intersystem operations standard.
3. TR-45 Ad Hoc Group Changes.
The ESN ad hoc group has been eliminated, and the Network Management ad hoc is rethinking its future.
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. C and TIA/EIA-41-D Implementations.
The status of the most significant new intersystem capabilities for major manufacturers.
5. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee, Radio to Switching Technology, Standards Status Report.
The status of standards related to the BS-to-MSC "A" interface.

March, 1998 Articles

1. Wireless '98.
The CTIA annual convention, Wireless '98 was, as usual, larger than in previous years. Out of the immense number of new products we focus on Location technology and solutions to the problem of A-Key entry.
2. Cloudy Skies for CALEA.
The fate of the TIA/ATIS standard for CALEA, J-STD-025, is still unknown. Standards development is proceeding on the FBI 'punch list', although the FBI still believes it is within the bounds of CALEA.
3. Cellular Networking Perspectives Around the World.
Cellular Networking Perspectives has been purchased in 20 countries around the world.
4. IS-136 Reorganization.
IS-136 will soon be no more, to be replaced by TIA/EIA-136 which will swallow up many of the lesser known supporting standards.
5. TIA/EIA-41 Revision E.
Revision D of the intersystem operations standard was just published in December 1997. What will be in the next version? When will it be available?.
6. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.

February, 1998 Articles

1. Australia to Annihilate AMPS?.
Will Australia really turn off its AMPS cellular system on January 1, 2000, leaving only GSM systems?.
2. Website Upgrades.
Check out the new and better links from http://www.cnp-wireless.com/pointers.html.
3. International Applications of TIA Wireless Standards, Part II: Born in the USA.
The AMPS family of standards must overcome its US heritage to facilitate international roaming.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular/PCS Network Standards Report.
A listing of published TIA standards, and projects under development, that support network operations and roaming for AMPS, CDMA and D-AMPS phones.

January, 1998 Articles

1. WIN Phase II: Charging Ahead.
The ink is not yet dry on the Wireless Intelligent Network Phase I, and the CTIA has already submitted the requirements for Phase II, largely related to new charging capabilities.
2. Erratum: Network TMSI.
3. TIA TR-45 Cryptographic Development Policy Approved.
Future TIA wireless standards should be more secure following the adoption of a new development policy that includes outside input.
4. ESN Update.
An update on the new TIA responsibility for allocating ESN manufacturer codes, and the latest plans for an expanded (56 bit) EESN.
5. New Working Group in TIA TR-45.1.
TR-45.1 WG IV has been created to develop a standard portable phone to vehicle interface.
6. International Applications of TIA Wireless Standards.
Although TIA wireless standards are in use around the world, seamless international roaming is not yet possible. Here's why.
7. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
An updated list of published analog air interface standards, and those under development.

December, 1997 Articles

1. CALEA Gets a Standard.
The telecom industry's blueprint for US law enforcement surveillance requirements will be published as an interim standard, and possibly as a full ANSI standard.
2. The Ninety-Nine Names of IS-41.
It is time to review the latest names given to the almost published ANSI version of TIA IS-41.
3. Advanced CDMA Network Features: PN-3619.
What are TMSI and NDSS? And, how do CDMA roamers benefit from them?.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
Much has changed since our last report on the status of the TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee's network standards. Many important new capabilities and US government mandates either have a new standard, or soon will.

November, 1997 Articles

1. CALEA Crisis Close to Closure?.
Is the fight between the telecommunications industry and law enforcement over the 3 C's of CALEA (Capability, Capacity and Cost Recovery) nearing an end?.
2. Calling Party Pays: Has Its Time Come?.
Calling Party Pays (CPP) is easy to describe, but hard to implement. However, both the CTIA and the FCC are now interested in trying to make it work.
3. Roaming with the IS-136 TDMA Digital Control Channel (DCCH), Part II.
A discussion of support for DCCH features: Control Channel Mode monitoring, Sleep Mode, Alternate Voice Coders and Private Virtual Systems in the IS-730 network standard and the IS-136 Revision A TDMA air interface standard.
4. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A summary of all standards that have been published by TIA subcommittee TR-45.5, or that are under development.

October, 1997 Articles

1. Roaming with the IS-136 Digital Control Channel, Part I.
A description of the features provided by IS-730, a new standard designed to extend benefits of the TDMA Digital Control Channel to roamers.
2. ATIS T1P1/TIA TR-46 Committee PCS-1900 Standards Project Status Report.
A first report on the status of standards being produced by ATIS T1P1, with a little help from TIA TR-46, to support GSM systems operating in North American PCS frequency bands.
3. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee Radio-to-Switching Technology Standards Status Report.
An update on the status of standards being developed to support open "A" interfaces, connecting Base Stations to Mobile Switching Centers.

September, 1997 Articles

1. Standards Updates: Number Portability, LAES and E9-1-1.
A discussion of the latest advances in wireless network standards, mostly to meet rapidly approaching deadlines for government mandates.
2. First Report on TR-45.6.
TIA subcommittee TR-45.6 was recently formed to standardize the CDPD "packet data over cellular" specification.
3. TIA now the ESN Allocation Authority.
4. Features and Capabilities for the TIA "AMPS" Family of Wireless Standards.
Our first report to cross reference features and capabilities of the wireless network to revisions of TIA network and air interface standards.
5. TIA TR-45.6 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Standards.
A complete listing of the initial standardization projects related to the formalization of CDPD as TIA standard IS-732.
6. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
An update on the latest status of standards to support TDMA digital cellular.

August, 1997 Articles

1. "These flaws effectively nullify authentication" ... Or do they?.
After the recent news that the TIA CMEA encryption algorithm was cracked, is it now the turn of the much more significant authentication process?.
2. CTIA Requests FCC Decision on SP-3580.
The CTIA has asked the FCC to determine whether the developing TIA standard SP-3580 meets the requirements of the US CALEA Law for electronic surveillance.
3. FCC to Revisit Wireless 9-1-1 Decision.
The FCC will be re-examining its rulemaking, particularly the requirement that uninitialized mobiles be allowed to make 9-1-1 calls.
4. US Law Enforcement Surveillance Standard Part II: The Protocol.
A description of the TIA protocol that is designed to conform to the US CALEA law for electronic surveillance, including a list of law enforcement requirements.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. C Implementation.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular/PCS Network Standards Report.
A summary of all wireless network standards that have been published, or are under development.

July, 1997 Articles

1. New Book Fills IS-41 Information Void.
A review of the new book: Mobile Telecommunications Networking With IS-41.
2. MIPS: Mobile Internet Phone Services Forum.
A new forum for the development of standards to facilitate access to the internet from mobile devices.
3. WIN Part IV: Our Score Card.
The conclusion of our series on the Wireless Intelligent Network asks how the developing standard measures up to its requirements.
4. US Law Enforcement Surveillance Standard, Part I: Overview.
An overview of the SP-3580 standard for electronic surveillance, currently undergoing ballot review.
5. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
A summary of all published standards and ongoing projects to support "AMPS" and "NAMPS" analog air interfaces.

June, 1997 Articles

1. Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance Ballot Ends ... With a Thud.
The TIA ballot of SP-3580 has ended with 34 "No" votes from law enforcement agencies - all with the same 60 pages of comments.
2. "Mobile Telecommunications Networking with IS-41".
The first book devoted to the topic of IS-41 intersystem operations has been published.
3. WIN Part III: A Partly Polished Protocol.
A discussion of the current state of Wireless Intelligent Network protocol development.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
The latest status of the flood of wireless network standards washing over TR-45.2.
5. TIA TR-45 Cellular/PCS Committee for "AMPS" Standards Development.
The complex structure of the TIA TR-45 standards committee revealed in a unique format.

May, 1997 Articles

1. New TIA TR-45 Standardization Efforts: CDPD and Number Portability.
2. Cellular Networking Perspectives in Spanish.
3. Mail Backup Available.
4. "Predictions Best Forgotten" Department.
5. Growth in GSM and AMPS Compared.
6. Digital Cellular Encryption "Cracker" Responds.
David Wagner, one of the team that 'cracked' the TIA CMEA algorithm responds to our April article.
7. Cracking CMEA: An 'Inside' Job?.
8. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest update on the status of IS-41 Rev. B trials and implementation. Welcome, Phoenix Wireless!.
9. Status of IS-41 Rev. C Implementation.
The latest update on the status of IS-41 Rev. C trials and implementation, with the first reports of commercial service.
10. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A list of all TIA standards, published or in development, related to CDMA (Wideband Spread Spectrum) digital cellular and PCS.

April, 1997 Articles

1. Has Digital Cellular Been Cracked?.
2. WIN: The Wireless Intelligent Network, Part II: The ITU View.
Half of the TIA's WIN standard is based on ITU standards: the Call Model and the Distributed Functional Plane (DFP) reference model.
3. TIA TR-45.2 Standards Update.
The status and a description of all wireless network standards being developed by TIA subcommittee TR-45.2.
4. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee BS-MSC "A" Interface Standards Project Status Report.
The status of all standards that have been published, or are being developed by TIA subcommittee TR-45.4.

March, 1997 Articles

1. TIA Subcommittee TR-45.3: TDMA Digital Standards.
2. We Now Accept Visa.
3. Start Your Collection of Cellular Networking Perspectives Trading Cards!.
4. ESN Ad-Hoc Group Prepares to Step Forwards...Then Hesitates.
A proposal to expand the number of ESN manufacturer codes from 250 to 4,000 has been inexplicably rejected.
5. AMPS in Yet Another Band.
Hawaiian Wireless and Ericsson have launched IS-136 TDMA digital cellular into the SMR band.
6. IS-136 Dual-Band Phones Demonstrated.
Ericsson has demonstrated the first IS-136 digital phones that operate in both the 800 Mhz cellular and 1800 Mhz PCS frequency bands.
7. US IMSI Management Council Appointed.
The allocation of IMSI identifiers in the US will now be directed by an industry council created by joint CTIA/PCIA efforts.
8. New TIA Projects.
9. WIN: Wireless Intelligent Network, Part I: The Motivation.
Will WIN bring cheaper, faster and more flexible features to carriers?.
10. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A summary of all standards published or under development by TR-45.3.

February, 1997 Articles

1. Welcome, CSR-R Subscribers.
Cellular Networking Perspectives welcomes subscribers from CSR-R, which ceased publication in January, 1997.
2. MSC Anti-Fraud Measures.
The MSC has an important role to play in detecting fraud, especially for mobiles that do not support authentication.
3. PCS Multiband Handoff with TIA TSB-76, Part II.
Handoff between cellular and PCS bands is possible, although with significant limitations.
4. Local Number Portability.
The FCC has mandated local number portability for cellular and PCS carriers by 1998/1999. Now the CTIA has formally asked the TIA for standardization.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
The latest information on wireless network standardization. What's for ballot, what's not?.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular/PCS Network Standards Report.
A summary of all wireless network standards that have been published, or are under development. Ideal for pinning on your wall.

January, 1997 Articles

1. The Many Names of IS-41, er, TIA/EIA-689, um, ANSI/TIA/EIA-41.
The name of IS-41 is changing. The planned changed to TIA/EIA-689 was averted at the last minute and now it will be ANSI/TIA/EIA-41.
2. CDPD To Be Standardized.
The CDPD packet data protocol that runs within analog cellular channels has finally begun the process of TIA standardization.
3. IS-41 Rev. C Field Trial Update.
Due to IS-41 Rev. C updates received after publication of the last issue, a new report is required.
4. IFAST To Allocate MINs.
The International Forum on AMPS Standards Technology (IFAST) has taken the bold step of allocating blocks of non-dialable MINs for international roamers.
5. Cellular Networking Perspectives by Email.
Subscribers can now receive this bulletin by email, in Adobe Acrobat format. It preserves all formatting, diagrams and tables, and provides additional capabilities beyond a paper version.
6. PCS Multiband Handoff with TIA TSB-76.
A new TSB extends IS-41 to allow intersystem handoff between PCS bands, and between a PCS system and a neighboring Cellular system.
7. Status of IS-41 Rev. C (ANSI/TIA/EIA-41) Implementation.
The latest status of IS-41 Rev. C (aka ANSI/TIA/EIA-41) lab and field trials.
8. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
A list of all analog air interface standards, both published and in development.

December, 1996 Articles

1. Our Editor: Now Appearing in Cellular Business Magazine.
The editor of Cellular Networking Perspectives began a monthly column entitled "Networks" in the September, 1996 issue of Cellular Business magazine.
2. RF Fingerprinting Carves a Niche Out of Fraud, Part II.
Details on the advantages and disadvantages of RF Fingerprinting, and a list of announced equipment installations.
3. An Introduction to Muneerah Vasanji, our Customer Service and Marketing Manager.
Contact Muneerah Vasanji for any new orders, changes to your subscription or problems you may have (1-800-633-5514 or cnpsales@cnp-wireless.com).
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. C (TIA/EIA-689 Rev. 0) Implementation.
A first report on trials of Revision C of the IS-41 inter-system operations standard, soon to be known as TIA/EIA-689 Rev. 0).
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
A new batch of TIA standards are ready to hatch, covering intersystem operations to support data, advanced digital features, over-the-air activation, wiretap and emergency services.
6. "TACS" Cellular Around the World.
A map of the countries that currently have TACS cellular systems, a variant of AMPS that operates in a 900 MHz frequency band.

November, 1996 Articles

1. Introducing the North American Numbering Council (NANC).
The FCC is finally moving to take over the North American Numbering Plan, via the North American Numbering Council (NANC).
2. Intersystem Message Security.
The TIA, at the urging of the CTIA, is moving to develop standards to protect the IS-41 and IS-124 intersystem messaging networks.
3. Wireless Around the World...Again.
An update on the penetration of global wireless standards, using statistics published by the US Dept. of Commerce.
4. IS-129: A Standards for GSM to IS-41 Interworking, Part II.
A description of the provisions in IS-129 for interworking between GSM and IS-41 systems to support handoff, short message service and call delivery.
5. RF Fingerprinting Carves a Niche Out of Fraud, Part I.
RF Fingerprinting is a promising anti-cloning technique until authentication is universally available. Part I describes how it works alone, and with other anti-fraud methods.
6. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest status of IS-41 Rev. B implementation.
7. TIA TR-46 Committee Public 1800 MHz PCS Project Status Report.
The status of current and published standards projects for PCS (excluding AMPS-based standards).

October, 1996 Articles

1. Guest's Cell: P.J. Louis on ATM - "Quest for Speed and Volume".
Our most prolific guest writer, P.J. Louis, tackles ATM, asking "is it good for wireless?".
2. Fractionating IS-41.
IS-41 is too fat, and its parent standards committee (TR-45.2) is trying to decide on an appropriate diet.
3. IS-129: A Standard for GSM to IS-41 Interworking, Part I.
Does IS-129 live up to its title that promises to provide interworking and interoperability between DCS 1900 (GSM) and IS-41 based systems?.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
A description of the status of open projects in the TIA TR-45.2 network standards subcommittee.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Standards Report.
A tabular report on the latest status of wireless network standards, published or under development by the TIA TR-45.2 network standards subcommittee.

September, 1996 Articles

1. Enhanced Wireless 9-1-1, Part II: A New Standard.
A new standard is being developed by TIA subcommittee TR-45.2 to provide enhanced wireless 9-1-1 capabilities for both AMPS and GSM based wireless systems.
2. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
An updated list of the rapidly evolving CDMA digital standards for cellular and PCS systems.
3. TIA Subcommittee TR-45.2 Working Group and Task Group Organization Chart.
An organization chart for the TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee that defines network standards for the AMPS family of cellular and PCS standards.

August, 1996 Articles

1. CTIA Plans Funeral for Non-Authenticating Phones.
A CTIA memo recommending that all new phones be authenticatable could result in 50% authenticatable phones within two years.
2. Wireless Around the World.
A comparison of the penetration of various wireless standards (e.g. AMPS, TACS, GSM, NMT) around the world.
3. Guest's Cell: Competing Interconnection Standards.
An analysis of the technical and political differences between the two major interconnect standards: Bellcore's TR-NPL-000145 and TIA's IS-93.
4. Enhanced Wireless 9-1-1, Part I: An Emergency History Lesson.
A description of the basic requirements for enhanced wireless 9-1-1, compatible with the recent FCC rule-making.
5. AMPS Cellular Around the World.
A map showing the nations with AMPS systems, grouped by region of the globe.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Standards Update.
The status of projects within the wireless network standards committee, including the approval for publication of TSB-76 on PCS Multi-band support for IS-41.

July, 1996 Articles

1. IS-41 Rev. C Update: Name Change and Prioritization.
IS-41 Rev. C will become TIA/EIA-689 when ANSI balloting is complete. Its features have been classified by the CTIA as High, Medium and Low priority.
2. Life on the Border, Part III: The Rearguard.
While inter-system paging is the main line of defence against border cell problems, three other remedies exist.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest status of IS-41 Rev. B lab and field trials.
4. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
The latest status of analog cellular and PCS standards, published or under development.

June, 1996 Articles

1. Perspectives by Email!.
Cellular Networking Perspectives will soon be available by email, as well as by fax and postal delivery.
2. Price Increase Notification.
The price of Cellular Networking Perspectives is increasing, effective July 1, 1996. A regular subscription increases from $250 to $300 per year.
3. Web Pickings This Month.
Try out our expanded TIA page at http://www.cnp-wireless.com/tia.html.
4. New chair for TR-45.5.
The TIA TR-45.5 subcommittee for CDMA digital wireless communications has a new chairman.
5. Life on the Border, Part II: Intersystem Page Defences.
The most powerful defence against border cell problems is intersystem paging, using the TIA standards TSB-65 or IS-41 Rev. C.
6. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
An update on the TIA subcommittee TR-45.2 projects to develop standards for wireless networks.
7. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee Public 800 MHz PCS/Microsystems Project Status Report.
A list of the standards developed by the TIA subcommittee TR-45.4 focussing on the BS/MSC "A" interface.

May, 1996 Articles

1. TR-46 Reinflates.
TIA standards committee TR-46 has not imploded, it is just reorganizing, now that AMPS-based standardization has moved to TR-45.
2. Phil Audino on the Ramifications of the US Telecommunications Act of 1996.
This law heralds an era of a new and fully competitive telecommunications environment in the US.
3. Rejiggin' the ESN.
There will soon be a shortage of ESN codes if the structure of this AMPS terminal identifier is not re-engineered.
4. Life on the Border, Part I: Introduction to Border Cell Problems.
Border Cell problems are bugs and wrinkles that show up on the boundary between two systems. Part I describes what they are and the problems they cause.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Working Group/Task Group Report.
A list of the working groups, task groups and ad hoc groups in TIA subcommittee TR-45.2, covering the gamut of AMPS-based wireless network standardization.

April, 1996 Articles

1. First Meeting of IFAST.
The International Forum on AMPS Standards Technology was formed to study technical issues related to international roaming between AMPS-style systems.
2. New TR-45 Ad Hoc Groups.
An OA&M ad hoc group to study standardization of Operations, Administration and Maintenance and an ITU ad hoc group to coordinate TIA TR-45 standards work with global ITU standardization.
3. TR-46 Implodes.
Every month, the TIA TR-46 committee gets smaller, while T1P1 and TR-45 get bigger.
4. Wireless'96.
The editor's acerbic view of the annual CTIA convention and exposition.
5. SIDs, BIDs and Other IDs.
Can't tell a BillingID from a BID (Billing ID)? At last there is help.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.
The current status of wireless network standards and standardization projects.
7. TIA TR-45.3 TDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
An update on the status of TDMA digital cellular and PCS radio standards.

March, 1996 Articles

1. CTIA Agreement on Emergency Services.
The CTIA has reached an agreement with Emergency Services organizations NENA, APCO and NASNA on a two phase, 5 year approach to improving wireless emergency service.
2. US IMSI Administrator Appointed.
Bellcore's Numbering Consulting Group (NCG) has been appointed the day-to-day administrator of IMSI resources in the US.
3. CTIA Accelerates Authentication.
Authentication may be included in all new cellular phones as soon as July, 1996.
4. The IS-95 Standard for Digital Wireless Communication, Part II: Capabilities, Services and Options.
A description of the basic features provided by the IS-95 and J-STD-008 CDMA wireless standards.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
The latest information on wireless network standards.
6. TIA TR-45.5 CDMA Digital Air Interface Standards.
A list of standards and TSBs that make up the CDMA family.

February, 1996 Articles

1. Subsystem No. = Headache, TSB-55 = Aspirin.
The importance of incorporating TIA TSB-55 into IS-41 Rev. A and Rev. B systems to ensure backward and forward compatibility.
2. More on Authentication...
Important clarifications on authentication implementation issues, courtesy of Allan Angus of JRC International.
3. The IS-95 Standard for CDMA Digital Wireless Communication: Part I.
An overview of IS-95 and related standards for cellular and PCS systems, including an introduction to CDMA technology and a description of the IS-95 channel structure.
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest information on IS-41 Rev. B lab and field trials. Welcome Telos and Harris/NovAtel that are making their first appearance.

January, 1996 Articles

1. AMPS Technology Gets a New Friend.
The Joint Committee on Cellular Roaming (JCCR), formed in 1995 to resolve Mexico's international roaming problems, has been transformed into the International Forum for AMPS Standards Technology (IFAST).
2. Harry Young on Number Portability.
Harry Young, a highly respected consultant on wireless industry issues, describes how number portability will impact wireless systems, even if only landline systems are required to provide this capability.
3. TR-45 and TR-46 Reorganization.
A description of the new, expanded mandate for TIA standards committee TR-45 and the shrunken, still unclear, mandate for TR-46.
4. Fraud and Countermeasures, Part IV: Implementation of Authentication.
This article explains how authentication can be made to work for roamers, derails some misconceptions that are slowing the implementation of authentication, and details a strategy for implementation by carriers.
5. TIA TR-45.1 Analog Air Interface Standards Report.
A summary of AMPS cellular analog air interface standards developed by the TIA TR-45.1 standards subcommittee.

December, 1995 Articles

1. IS-41 Revision C Approved for Publication.
Revision C of IS-41 was approved for publication in November, 1995 ... almost 5 years after Revision B!.
2. Randy Snyder on IS-41/GSM Interoperability.
A description of some of the challenges of interworking between the two dissimilar network protocols being promoted for PCS; IS-41 and GSM MAP.
3. Fraud and Countermeasures, Part III: How Authentication Works.
A high level description of how TIA CAVE authentication works.

November, 1995 Articles

1. Fraud and Countermeasures, Part II: Clones.
What is cloning, and how are cellular carriers defending against clones?.
2. TIA TR-46 Committee Public 1800 MHz PCS Project Status Report.
A summary of standardization projects in the TR-46 committee for 1800 MHz PCS.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest information on the status of IS-41 Rev. B lab and field trials between pairs of vendors (Alcatel, Astronet, AT&T, Celcore, EDS, Ericsson, GTE, Motorola, NEC, Nortel, Plexsys).

October, 1995 Articles

1. North America Now Joined to Asia.
Seamless roaming in the AMPS world is spreading steadily from its base in the USA and Canada to Asia and South America.
2. Yet More Wireless Features: TIA IS-53 Revision B.
A description of what to expect in the third revision of the cellular (and now PCS) features standard.
3. Fraud and Countermeasures, Part I: The Land Before Clones.
The first of a series on fraud, provides the background and history on the development of fraud and countermeasures before cloning.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Revision C is "this" Close.

September, 1995 Articles

1. All Mexican Phones to be Reprogrammed.
Mexican carriers will be modifying the MIN in all their customer's cellular phones from 52XXXXXXXX to 05XXXXXXXX to solve international roaming problems.
2. TIA Standard IS-136 Part II: New Capabilities.
IS-136 promises a host of new services and capabilities. The big question is when the IS-41 network will support them.
3. TIA Standard IS-136 Part III: A 3 Layer Cake with Icing.
A summary of the 3 layers of IS-136: Physical, Link and Call Processing, with IS-41 intersystem operations seen as the icing on the cake.

August, 1995 Articles

1. TIA Standard IS-136 Part I: Advanced TDMA Digital Cellular and PCS.
The first part of an article describing the newly published IS-136 "Digital Control Channel" standard for second generation TDMA digital cellular and PCS phones.
2. TR-46 Standards Update.
A list of projects in the TR-46 PCS standards committee.
3. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
Projects in the TR-45.2 cellular inter-system standards subcommittee.

July, 1995 Articles

1. CTIA IMSI Forum.
A forum to prompt the development of IMSI (Int'l Mobile Station Identity) allocation rules in the USA.
2. IS-41 Trial Asymmetry.
An explanation of why our IS-41 lab and field trial reports are not always symmetrical.
3. TR-46 Standards Update.
A list of projects in the TR-46 PCS standards committee.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
Projects in the TR-45.2 cellular inter-system standards subcommittee.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
An updated list of IS-41 Rev. B trials between different vendor's equipment. This report shows notable activity by Plexsys and Celcore.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.
7. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee Public 800 MHz PCS / Microsystems Project Status Report.
A report of projects in TR-45.4, best known for its standardization of the cellular "A" interface (BS to MSC).

June, 1995 Articles

1. Possible TIA TR-45 and TR-46 Reorganization.
A proposal has been made to reorganize the TIA TR-45 and TR-46 standards committees along ancestral lines instead of radio frequency.
2. New Task Groups in TR-45.2.
Five new task groups have been created to study major work areas, such as 9-1-1 and the Wireless Intelligent Network. A dormant task group on data transmission has been revived.
3. International Update.
A description of progress resolving problems with international roaming due to restrictions of the current MIN identifier. The long term solution is the international standard IMSI identifier.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Revision C Out For Ballot.

May, 1995 Articles

1. TIA Standard IS-124 Part II: Anatomy of a Call Detail Record.
The second and last part of our series describing the IS-124 standard for near realtime exchange of call detail records.
2. Summary of IS-124 ("DMH") Equipment and Service Vendors.
The Who's Who of the emerging IS-124 marketplace.

April, 1995 Articles

1. IS-41 Rev. C Goes to Ballot.
IS-41 Rev. C has been approved for ballot, although publication is still several months away.
2. PCS Standardization in TIA Committee TR-46.
A report on the status of standardization projects for 1800 MHz PCS.
3. TIA Standard IS-124: Real-Time Call Detail Record Transfer: Part I.
The first part of a report on the IS-124 standard for the electronic exchange of call detail and billing records.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Revision C to be Balloted.
5. TIA TR-46 Committee Public 1800 MHz PCS Project Status Report.
6. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.

March, 1995 Articles

1. If in Doubt ... Reorganize.
Reorganization of TIA subcommittee TR-45.2 Working Groups I, II, III and V.
2. New Cellular Features: The Lucky 9 for '95.
Carriers, through the CTIA, have chosen their priority features for IS-53 Rev. B and IS-41 Rev. D.
3. SMS: Cellular Short Message Service, Part II of II.
4. Guest's Cell: P.J. Louis on Seamlessness.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-52 Rev. A and IS-53 Rev. A Available Real Soon Now.
6. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular Intersystem Operations Working Group Report.

February, 1995 Articles

1. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
2. Equal Access Dialing Transition.
An explanation of the transition from 10-XXX long distance carrier selection dialing to 101-XXXX, which started in 1995.
3. SMS: Cellular Short Message Service, Part I of II.
IS-41 Revision C will include a capability for cellular phones to send and receive short messages. Is this paging or e-mail, or something else entirely?.
4. TIA Cellular Air Interface Standards Report.
Are you confused by cellular air interface standard numbers? Are you missing some important standards? This list will help the IS- and TSB- challenged.

January, 1995 Articles

1. The First PIN Prick.
As predicted, cloners have begun to pick their way around PINs.
2. Cellular Calls Home.
A standard that merges cellular and cordless capabilities.
3. WIN: The Wireless Intelligent Network.
The CTIA has produced the requirements for adding Intelligent Networking to cellular, to facilitate new feature development by carriers.
4. TSB-41: The IS-41 Rev. B Technical Notes.
This new standard should be incorporated in all IS-41 Rev. B implementations.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-53 Revision A Approved for Publication.
6. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Implementation.
7. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.

December, 1994 Articles

1. The Emperor's New PIN.
Carriers are fighting fraud by making their subscribers enter a PIN on every call. But will it work?.
2. The TIA International Roaming JEM.
A report on the recent industry meeting to resolve industry roaming problems.
3. Why MIN's are Phone Numbers and Why They Shouldn't Be.
A MIN is a phone number, right? It ain't necessarily so.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-52 Dialing Plan Approved for Publication.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.

November, 1994 Articles

1. Emergency Services JEM Number 2: Anything New?.
A summary of the few differences between the TIA Emergency Services Joint Experts Meeting (JEM) held in August, 1994 and the PCIA/ATIS/TIA JEM held in October, 1994.
2. A Sneak Preview of IS-41 Revision C.
A description of the new features and capabilities being included in Revision C of IS-41.
3. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Technical Notes Approved for Publication.
An update on the status of standardization projects within the TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee.

October, 1994 Articles

1. TR-45.2 Standards update: IS-53 Rev. A Out for Ballot.
An update on three cellular networking standards out for ballot: IS-53 Revision A on features, IS-52 Revision A on dialing (for cellular systems within the NANP) and TSB-41 (IS-41 Rev. B Technical Notes).
2. TIA Emergency Services JEM in Summary.
A summary of the recommendations of the TIA Joint Expert's Meeting on enhanced wireless 9-1-1 service that was held in August 1994.
3. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.
A summary of the projects being developed by the TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee. Changes from the last report are listed in bold type.

September, 1994 Articles

1. TIA Joint Expert's Meeting to Study International Roaming Problems.
2. CTIA Forum on Cellular Extension Telephone Service, October 27th, 1994.
3. New Chair for TR-45.2 WG VI on International Issues.
4. Guest's Cell: P.J. Louis on Wireless Interconnect.
An industry expert provides his views on the evolution of wireless interconnection.
5. TIA Joint Expert's Meeting on Enhanced Cellular 9-1-1 Service.
6. TIA IS-52: The Cellular Dialing Plan Standard.
A summary of the proposed Revision A of the standard defining a dialing plan for cellular systems.
7. TR-45.2 Standards Update: TSB-41 and IS-52 Out for Ballot.
An update on the status of standards being developed by the TIA TR-45.2 standards committee.
8. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
A summary of the status of IS-41 Rev. B lab and field trials, including the first confirmation of commercial service.

August, 1994 Articles

1. Interchangeable Area Codes Will Disrupt International Roaming.
Interchangeable area codes (i.e. with digits other than 0 or 1 in the second position) will disrupt international roaming for countries that thought these numbers were safe to program their MINs with.
2. Big Brother Would Like to Listen to the Big Bad Wolf.
A report on the initiation of law enforcement efforts to develop standards for lawfully authorized eavesdropping in US wireless telecommunications.
3. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part VI: Border Problems.
How boundaries between cellular systems trip up call delivery, and how these problems can be mitigated.
4. Inter-System Call Delivery: The IS-41 Toolbox.
The IS-41 transactions that make inter-system call delivery possible.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-52 Dialing Plan Standard Approved for Ballot.
... also the IS-41 Technical Notes (TSB-41) will be reballoted due to extensive ballot comments.
6. TIA TR-46 Committee Public 1800 MHz PCS Network Standards Project Report.
A summary of the projects being developed by the TIA TR-46.1 and TR-46.2 subcommittees responsible for PCS network standards.

July, 1994 Articles

1. FCC Revises PCS Decision.
The FCC has made several changes to its original broadband PCS allocation rules.
2. FCC may Impose Equal Access on all Cellular Carriers.
The FCC is considering whether all cellular subscribers should be able to use their preferred long distance carrier for cellular calls.
3. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part V: Compatibility.
How new call delivery features are integrated into the cellular network.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
IS-41 Rev. B Test Plan (TSB-56) is now available. The TSB-41 ballot period has been extended to July 8th.
5. FCC to Investigate Interconnection Obligations.
The FCC is investigating the interconnection obligations of LEC's to cellular carriers and of cellular carriers to other carriers (e.g. PCS).
6. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.

June, 1994 Articles

1. IS-41 Rev. C Delayed Again.
2. TSB-41 (IS-41 Rev. B Technical Notes) Out for Ballot.
3. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part IV: Optimizing.
A discussion of optimizations to IS-41 inter-system call delivery beyond what is implemented commonly today.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Rev. B Technical Notes Out for Ballot.
5. TIA Interim Standard IS-41 Rev. C: Summary of Proposed Contents.
What new features will likely be incorporated in Revision C of IS-41.
6. TIA TR-45 Air Interfaces Standards Reports.
A summary of over 30 standards that define parts of the various TIA cellular air interfaces from analog to TDMA and CDMA. .

May, 1994 Articles

1. 9-1-1 Joint Expert's Meeting.
...to be held August 1, 1994.
2. Short Message Service Joint Expert's Meeting.
A summary of draft recommendations from this JEM held March 21-25, 1994.
3. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part III: When Lawyers Design Systems.
How the legal ramifications of the AT&T divestiture affect inter-system call delivery ... for the worse.
4. Guest's Corner: PCS (anonymous).
An anonymous guest writer gives a caustic opinion on two topics: the battle between GSM and IS-41 as PCS network standards and on the supposed differences between 1800 MHz PCS and 800 Mhz cellular.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Test Plan Approved for Publication.
The status of all standards documents being worked on by the TIA TR-45.2 subcommittee.
6. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.
The latest in IS-41 Rev. B field trials, including the first report mixed IS-41 Rev. A/B trial. Welcome, Alcatel-SEL.

April, 1994 Articles

1. Dial 9-1-1 for Confusion.
The FCC wants better 9-1-1 service from cellular and other wireless systems.
2. Trends at Wireless '94.
3. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part II: The Exceptions are the Rule.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update: IS-41 Rev. A Compatibility TSB Approved for Publication.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Implementation.

March, 1994 Articles

1. PTAG Announces Support for TIA Cellular Standards in PCS.
2. Inter-System Call Delivery, Part I: Overview.
3. TR-45.2 Standards Update: Border Cell TSB to be Published.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Cellular Intersystem Operations Subcommittee Report.

February, 1994 Articles

1. TR-46 and TR-45.4 Projects: PCS Networking Standardization.
2. TR-45.2 International WG VI - Musical Chairs.
3. IS-41: The Networking Standard for PCS.
4. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
5. TIA TR-46 Committee (Public 1800 MHz PCS) Project Status Report.
6. TIA TR-45.4 Subcommittee (Public 800 MHz PCS/Microsystems) Project Status Report.

January, 1994 Articles

1. TR-46: PCS Civil War.
2. IS-53 Revision A, Part IV - Our Perspective on Features.
3. Structure of TIA Committee TR-46: Mobile and Personal Communications 1800 MHz "PCS" Standards.
4. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.

December, 1993 Articles

1. Erratum: FCC Allocation of PCS Frequencies.
2. IS-53 Revision A, Part III - The Last of the Features(?).
3. Summary of Features to be Included in TIA IS-53 Revision A.
4. Structure of TIA Mobile and Personal Communications Committees.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Implementation.

November, 1993 Articles

1. IS-53 Revision A, Part II - More Cellular Features.
2. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
2. IS-41 Rev. A Compatibility Guidelines - A Step to Rev. B Implementation.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.

October, 1993 Articles

1. FCC Allocates PCS Frequencies.
2. IS-53 Revision A, Part I - Cellular Feature Overload.
3. TR-45.2 Standards Update - DMH Release. IS-41 Doomed?.
4. Taking MINs to the Max - Problems with International Roaming.
5. TIA TR-45.2 Project Status Report.
7. IS-93: Timely or Time Bomb?.

August, 1993 Articles

1. Bellcore Relinquishes Control of the NANP.
2. Smart Cards, Dumb Phones?.
3. A+ Interface Looks for a Home.
4. Wireless Terminal Location Management Part III - Lessons for PCS.
5. TR-45.2 Standards Update.
6. Goldilocks and the Three IS-41 Address Types.
7. Status of IS-41 Rev. B Implementation.

July, 1993 Articles

1. ITN Named CTIA Backbone IS-41 Network Provider.
2. New TIA Standardization Efforts Loom.
3. Wireless Terminal Location Management, Part II - Problems, Problems.
4. TR-45.2 Continues to Pump Standards Out.
5. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Implementation.

June, 1993 Articles

1. Wireless Terminal Location Management, Part I.
2. Brace for the Standards Flood.
3. TIA TR-45.2 Working Group Report.

May, 1993 Articles

1. Where are the Rev. B Trials?.
2. IS-41 Enables Innovation.
3. A DMH by any other name would weigh as much...
4. TR-45.2 Progress Report.
5. TR-45.2 International Working Group VII: PSTN Interface.
6. TR-45.2 Project Status Report.
7. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Implementation.

April, 1993 Articles

1. IS-41 Explained.
2. TR-45.2 International Working Group VI.

March, 1993 Articles

1. Multi-Lingual Cellular ... Mais Oui!.
2. Wireless '93 - Cellular in Summary.
3. Status of IS-41 Rev. A Inter-Vendor Trials.

February, 1993 Articles

1. Bellcore has your numbers ... And they want to keep them.
2. IS-41 Handoff Part IV - New Air Interfaces.
3. TR-45.2 WG V - Subscriber Features.
4. Status of IS-41 Rev. 0 Inter-Vendor Trials.

January, 1993 Articles

1. IS-41 Handoff Part III - 3 Party Call Interactions.
2. TR-45.2 WG IV - Revenue Accounting.

December, 1992 Articles

1. Standards and TSBs Being Developed by TR-45.2.
IS-41 test plan, IS-41 Technical Notes, IS-41 Rev. A compatibility, IS-53 Rev. A (Features), PSTN interface (IS-93) and call detail record transfer (IS-124).
2. IS-41 Handoff Part II - Path Minimization.
How to minimize the use of facilities in an inter-MSC handoff involving 3 or more MSC's.
3. TR-45.2 Working Group III - Handoff.
WG III develops procedures for inter-system handoff.

November, 1992 Articles

1. CTIA has Bellcore's Number.
The war over North American numbering is far from over, judging from a recent blunt CTIA press release and a Bellcore rebuttal.
2. Inter-System Handoff Using the IS-41 Standard, Part I.
The basics of handing off a call from one MSC to another.
3. TR-45.2 Working Group II.
WG II is responsible for defining procedures for automatic roaming.

October, 1992 Articles

1. The Future of the North American Numbering Plan.
The Bellcore vision of the future of the NANP either ignores the existence of wireless carriers or is directly opposed to their needs...
2. TR-45.2 Working Group I.
WG I is responsible for message encoding and protocol selection for the cellular inter-system standard, IS-41.

September, 1992 Articles

1. Problems in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP).
An examination of the capacity problem in the NANP, and solutions proposed by the administrator.
2. TR-45.2 - The Cellular Standards Committee.
The TIA subcommittee TR-45.2 is responsible not for any air interfaces, but for all other cellular specific interfaces requiring standardization.

August, 1992 Articles

1. Security in Cellular Networks.
Fraud management, and other security issues, have become the most serious problem facing North American cellular system operators and a major problem for cellular subscribers.

July, 1992 Articles

1. Introducing Cellular Networking Perspectives.
Cellular Networking Perspectives has been created to explain, in plain language and in small doses, developments in the arcane world of cellular networking.

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